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Policy papers

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PP74: Violent extremism in Africa: Citizen perspectives from the Sahel epicenter and periphery

The Sahel is one of Africa’s most fragile regions and suffers from multiple longstanding and overlapping challenges, including entrenched poverty, underdevelopment, climate risks, and food insecurity. These chronic vulnerabilities have been exacerbated in recent years by the spread of a byzantine network of extremist and armed groups that have instrumentalized simmering local grievances and inter-community tensions to spread across the region’s porous borders.

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PP73: Tax disobedience in Côte d’Ivoire

Since the end of its civil war in 2011 and the installation of President Alassane Dramane Ouattara, Côte d’Ivoire has seen one of the highest rates of economic growth in Africa, sometimes referred to as a new “Ivoirian miracle” (Dionne & Bamba, 2017). As the economy has grown and the state has rebuilt capacity, tax revenues have increased steadily, growing by 37% between 2013 and 2017. 

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PP71: En Côte d’Ivoire, la situation politique mine le niveau sécuritaire

« Le bien-être des citoyens dépend du fait qu’ils bénéficient d’une sécurité personnelle, qui leur garantit ainsi qu’à leurs propriétés d’être exempts de violence et de vol », d’après le Legatum Institute (2019). « Un environnement sûr et stable est nécessaire pour attirer les investissements et soutenir la croissance économique. En bref, une nation ne peut prospérer que dans un environnement de sécurité et de sûreté pour ses citoyens ».

English

PP70: Willing to kill: Factors contributing to mob justice in Uganda

Mob justice is a form of extrajudicial punishment or retribution in which a person suspected of wrongdoing is typically humiliated, beaten, and in many cases killed by vigilantes or a crowd. Mob action takes place in the absence of any form of fair trial in which the accused are given a chance to defend themselves; the mob simply takes the law into its own hands (Ng’walali & Kitinya, 2006). Mob justice is not only criminal but also amounts to a violation of human rights (Uganda Human Rights Commission, 2016).

English

PP69: Election présidentielle 2020 en Côte d’Ivoire: Quels ingrédients pour la participation inclusive?

L’approche des élections présidentielles du 31 octobre 2020 en Côte d’Ivoire rime avec des tensions dans le paysage politique ivoirien. Depuis plusieurs mois, les partis politiques de l’opposition et les citoyens ordinaires manifestent publiquement leur contestation, en réaction à un potentiel troisième mandat du président sortant, ainsi que par rapport à la révision de la liste électorale qu’ils estiment opaque et non inclusive.

English

PP68: Corruption crossroads? Rising perceptions of graft weaken citizen trust, threaten Botswana’s democratic standing

English

PP67: COVID-19 in Africa - Vulnerabilities and assets for an effective response

Not only did the COVID-19 disease arrive on Africa’s shores (and at its airports) later than in Asia, Europe, and North America (Loembé et al., 2020), but for months the numbers of infections and deaths also appeared to remain relatively low. As of early August, the continent had experienced more than 1 million confirmed cases and 23,000 deaths (Africa CDC, 2020), though these figures were increasing rapidly.

English

PP66: Africa’s digital divide and the promise of e-learning

According to UNESCO (2020), approximately 1.2 billion students and youth worldwide are affected by school and university closures because of the COVID-19 pandemic. To adjust to these new circumstances, governments must develop innovative solutions to ensure inclusive learning opportunities during this period of unprecedented educational disruption.

English

PP65: Violent extremism in Africa: Popular assessments from the ‘Eastern Corridor’

Over the past two decades, the emergence and spread of local and transnational extremist organizations have become primary sources of insecurity in Africa. These include Al Shabaab, spreading from Somalia throughout East Africa; Boko Haram, from northern Nigeria into the greater Lake Chad region; Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, from Algeria to other states across the Sahel; and the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), continuing to make inroads into the continent (Mets, 2019).

English

PP64: Démocratie en Côte d’Ivoire: Mythe ou réalité?

La démocratie est un mode de gouvernance par lequel le peuple décide de dessiner son avenir. Elle incarne ainsi l’expression de la reconnaissance de l’État de droit et des droits de l’homme. Depuis les années 1990, les états africains ont massivement adhéré à ce modèle de gouvernance, et l’Union Africaine (2007) continue d’inviter ses membres à le promouvoir sur le continent à travers la Charte Africaine de la Démocratie, des Elections, et de la Gouvernance.

English

PP63: Democratic dividend: The road to quality education in Africa

Education is a powerful tool to fight poverty, enable upward socioeconomic mobility, and empower people to live healthier lives. But while the global adult literacy rate continues to increase, from 81% in 2000 to 86% in 2018 (World Bank, 2019), the challenge of access to quality education remains particularly severe in Africa. Even before the COVID-19 crisis, globally one out of five children aged 6-17 years were not in school; more than half of these children live in sub-Saharan Africa.

English

PP62: Lived poverty on the rise: Decade of living-standard gains ends in Africa

Economic destitution – whether measured as the frequency with which people go without basic necessities or as the proportion of people who live on less than $1.90 a day – declined steadily in Africa between 2005 and 2015. However, the findings of Afrobarometer Round 7 surveys, conducted in 34 African countries between late 2016 and late 2018, demonstrate that improvements in living standards have come to a halt and “lived poverty” is once again on the rise.

English

PP60: Change ahead: Experience and awareness of climate change in Africa

Climate change is “the defining development challenge of our time,” and Africa the continent most vulnerable to its consequences, according to the African Union (2015) and the United Nations (UN Environment, 2019). Farmers in Uganda waiting endlessly for rain (URN, 2019), cyclone survivors in Mozambique and Zimbabwe digging out of the mud and burying their dead (Associated Press, 2019) – these images bring home what changing climate and increasingly extreme weather conditions may mean for everyday Africans.

English

PP59: La création d’emplois: Un défi majeur au Bénin

Les questions relatives à l’emploi et plus précisément l’emploi des jeunes constituent une préoccupation particulière pour tous les états du monde, car le développement de leur nation de même que le bien-être des citoyens en dépendent. L’emploi étant l’un des moyens permettant de lutter contre la pauvreté (Hull, 2009), l’Organisation des Nations Unies, en lançant ses Objectifs de Développement Durable (ODD), a fait de l’accès à un emploi décent pour tous une de ses priorités (UNICEF, 2015).

English

PP58: Africans want open elections – especially if they bring change

Observers now commonly assert that multiparty elections are institutionalized as a standard feature of African politics (Posner & Young, 2007; Bratton, 2013; Cheeseman, 2018; Bleck & van de Walle, 2019). By this they mean that competitive electoral contests are the most commonplace procedure for choosing and changing political leaders across the continent.

English

PP57: Declining trust: Basotho perceptions of government corruption and performance drive drop in popular trust

In a democracy, citizens delegate powers to individuals and political parties charged with building and maintaining institutions that will ensure the people’s well-being. In this arrangement, trust is one of the most important ingredients in the legitimacy and sustainability of political systems (Blind, 2006).

English

PP52: Bounded autonomy: What limits Zimbabweans’ trust in their courts and electoral commission?

After the Constitutional Court upheld the election results of 30 July 2018, Zimbabwe’s leading opposition party ended its online public response with the following message to newly confirmed President Emmerson Mnangagwa: “You can rig the elections. You can capture ZEC [Zimbabwe Electoral Commission]. You can capture [the] judiciary. But you will never capture the people. Their will shall prevail. The people shall govern!” (Movement for Democratic Change, 2018).

English

Access to justice in Africa

Our global releases provide analysis across all surveyed countries on the most important and timely issues that Afrobarometer covers. Many are released during special release events in specific countries; all are distributed to stakeholders, the news media, and globally via our website.

PP50: La gouvernance, affecte-t-elle la volonté des Béninois à payer leurs taxes?

La mobilisation des ressources à travers la collecte des impôts et taxes est l’un des moyens pouvant permettre à une nation de renforcer sa capacité financière et améliorer la fourniture des biens et services publics pour le bien-être de la population. Cependant, les pays en voie de développement, qui ont un besoin énorme en termes de fourniture des biens et services publics, présentent une faible capacité à mobiliser les taxes (Besley & Persson, 2014).

English

PP49: Heal the beloved country: Zimbabwe’s polarized electorate

For a moment, Zimbabwe’s July 30, 2018, elections seemed to promise relief from a traumatic political past. An aging autocrat had been deposed and his successor intoned pledges of “a new dispensation.” A dormant opposition movement began to reawaken to opportunities for open political campaigning. At home and abroad, Zimbabwe’s well-wishers allowed themselves a cautious hope that change was finally afoot. But change was not to be.

Another disputed election

English

PP48: Demand for transparency, accountability drives call for electing local leaders in Ghana

Decentralization occurs when resources, power, and tasks are delegated to local-level governance structures that are democratic and largely independent of central government (Manor, 1999). Decentralization can thus be an important vehicle for ensuring that sustainable development policies and programs are implemented at the local level and bring socio-economic relief to the grass roots.

English

PP46: Food, health, poverty, water: How Malian citizens prioritize problems and the Sustainable Development Goals

ONLY AVAILABLE IN FRENCH.

Le présent rapport traite des questions portant sur les plus importants problèmes auxquels le Mali fait face et auxquels le gouvernement devrait s'attaquer. Il traite successivement de ces problèmes tels que révélés par les citoyens dans l'enquête Afrobaromètre de 2017 au Mali, des domaines de développement que recouvrent ces problèmes, et enfin des Objectifs de Développement Durable (ODD) qui peuvent en être tirés, objectifs correspondant à ceux de Nations Unies à l'horizon 2030.

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