L’éducation est reconnue essentielle pour le développement d’un pays et fait partie des Objectifs de Développement Durable (ODD) définies par les Nations Unies, comme l’ODD 4 pour une éducation de qualité. Pour Madagascar, l’état a entrepris une restructuration de l’éducation, portant sur l’aspect pédagogique et organisationnel du secteur.
على مستوى المساراتالمعقدةللهجرةالدولية،يعدالمغرببلدا استثنائيالكونهيشكل موطنا لنشأة المهاجرين و لعبورهم و 10 استلامهم .يشكلالمغاربةالذين يعيشون ببلدان المهجرالنسبةالعاشرةعلى المستوىالعالمي،حيثتصلهذه النسبة علىحوالي ) .
In the complex web of international migration, Morocco has the unusual distinction of being an origin and transit and receiving country. Morocco’s own diaspora is the 10th-largest in the world, making up about 10% of its population (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2018). For decades, Morocco has also been a popular transit country for migrants seeking to cross to Europe; in 2018, the European External Action Service (2018) recorded more than 57,000 sub-Saharan and North Africans who arrived in Spain through Morocco.
In an interconnected world, migration is inevitable and complex, a source of opportunity and challenge for countries of both origin and destination (International Organization for Migration, 2018; Food and Agriculture Organization, 2017; Boghean, 2016). In recent years, migration has become a high-visibility policy issue around the globe, including in Africa, as tens of thousands have made their way to Europe and hundreds have died trying or been subjected to mistreatment, even sold as slaves (BBC News, 2017; International Organization for Migration, 2015).
After more than a half-century as a single nation with a dual colonial heritage and two official languages – French and English – Cameroon is in danger of coming apart. Protests against perceived discrimination and lack of inclusion began peacefully in the anglophone regions in October 2016 but have escalated into violent conflict with a harsh government response (Africa Times, 2018; Morse, 2017; Confédération Suisse, 2018).
In Togo, the military is a very influential political actor. In 1967, a military coup installed Eyadema Gnassingbé as president, and he held power until his death in 2005. Immediately after his death, Eyadema’s son, Faure Gnassingbé, was declared president with the support of the Army.
Between 2000 and 2017, the number of international migrants from Africa grew by 67%, including many professionals opting for greener pastures in developed countries (Pathera, 2014; Wulfhorst, 2018; Pew Research Center, 2018; Chloe, 2007). In Malawi, the resulting strain on the health-care system has received particular attention, as the country loses more nurses than it trains and faces serious staffing shortages in the health sector (Masanjala, 2018).
Africa’s second-largest economy has been struggling. High unemployment (27.1% overall) has reached frightening levels among South Africa’s youth (54.7%). Rising prices for fuel and basic commodities have eroded consumers’ purchasing power. The kickstart provided by the 2010 World Cup is a fond memory, as gross domestic product (GDP) growth sputtered and all but stalled, at 0.6%, by 2016 (International Monetary Fund, 2018; IOL, 2018).
La problématique des changements climatiques constitue actuellement l’un des débats qui alimente la scène politique internationale. Le réchauffement du monde provoqué par les émissions de gaz à effets de serre a des répercussions importantes sur l’environnement et donc sur l’agriculture. Les pays en développement sont davantage dépendants des ressources climatiques pour leur agriculture et ont une capacité d'adaptation plus faible que les pays industrialisés (Pereira, 2017; Hernes et al., 1995; Schelling, 1992).
Elections are considered a core element of democratic rule (Przeworski et al., 1999). However, in many African countries, the introduction of regular elections has not resulted in liberal democratic reforms and the guarantee of civil and political freedoms (Gyimah-Boadi, 2004; Teshome, 2008).
Mauritius’ image as a model of media freedom in Africa has acquired a few blemishes, most recently in November when the National Assembly amended the country’s Information and Communication Technologies Act (ICTA) to punish online communications that are deemed likely to cause “annoyance, humiliation, inconvenience, distress, or anxiety” with up to 10 years in prison (Reporters Without Borders, 2018a).
Le franc des colonies françaises d’Afrique, ou franc CFA, a été créé par la France en décembre 1945 et est devenu lors des indépendances de 1960 le franc de la Communauté Financière Africaine pour les pays de l’Union Monétaire Ouest Africaine (UMOA) et le franc de la Coopération Financière en Afrique Centrale pour les pays membres de l’Union Monétaire de l’Afrique Centrale (UMAC) (BCEAO, 2018; Petteng, 2016).
Nigeria’s upcoming elections may be as momentous as they are mammoth: More than 20,000 candidates from 91 registered political parties will square off in presidential, gubernatorial, and parliamentary contests that observers hope will strengthen the country’s democracy and ensure economic development and peace (Gana, 2019; International Crisis Group, 2018). All eyes will be on the presidential race pitting incumbent Muhammadu Buhari of the All Progressives Congress (APC) against former Vice President Atiku Abubakar of the People’s Democratic Party (PDP).
Since August 2017, Togo has been shaken by waves of protests by a coalition of opposition parties known as C14 demanding constitutional, institutional, and electoral reforms resulting in parliamentary and local elections as well as a constitutional referendum in a more consensual atmosphere (Togo Times, 2018). The success of such an electoral marathon would depend in part on how much the various stakeholders trust the institutions involved in the electoral process, particularly the Independent National Electoral Commission (CENI in French).
L'intégration régionale a été pour l'Afrique une stratégie de développement des décennies durant. Le traité de fondation de la Communauté Economique Africaine en 1991 a fourni un cadre visant une intégration politique et économique totale avant 2019. Beaucoup de pays africains se sont engagés pour stimuler la coopération politique et économique.
While Zambia has achieved steady growth in primary-school enrollment and completion, critics say poorly trained teachers, inadequate learning materials, and poor school governance undermine the quality of education (Global Partnership for Education, 2018). To address these challenges, the Zambian government has committed to educational reforms designed to make teaching and learning more responsive to the needs and demands of the population.
Access to basic public services is regarded as a major determinant of human development and productivity, a prerequisite for ensuring the welfare of a country’s citizens (Armah-Attoh, 2015). But access to basic public services remains a major problem in many developing economies (Ofori-Mensal, 2017).
Corruption poses a serious threat to economic development and democratic governance in Africa. In recent years, Lesotho has been shaken by a number of corruption scandals involving high-ranking politicians. Allegations of corruption in the government fleet-service contract with Bidvest featured significantly in the split of the leading Democratic Congress (DC) party and the no-confidence vote that ended the Pakalitha Mosisili government in 2017 (Post, 2017; Matlosa, 2017).
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Les sources d’information, au fil des années, ont évolué technologiquement et se sont diversifiées. Au Bénin, à la presse écrite d’abord coloniale puis indépendante s’est ajouté en 1957 la première station nationale de radiodiffusion, appelée aujourd’hui Radio Bénin, qui à ce jour compte plusieurs démembrements et fait face depuis un quart de siècle à la concurrence des privés. La télévision a vu le jour en 1978, Internet au milieu des années 1990, et les réseaux sociaux vers le milieu des années 2000.
Scientists and policy makers have clearly recognized the threat that climate change poses to Liberia, particularly to its seven in 10 citizens who depend on agriculture for their livelihood (Stanturf, Goodrick, Warren, Stegall, & Williams, 2013; USAID, 2012). Severe flooding experienced in recent years, changes in rainfall patterns, increased temperatures, and other climate changes have serious implications for food security but also for health, education, and other development sectors (Kenneh & Greaves, 2016; Daily Observer, 2018).
With just a year to go until presidential and parliamentary elections in December 2019, electoral campaigning will soon get underway in Mauritius. Incumbents can tout a number of strengths. Mauritius ranks highly on many indicators of good governance and democracy, such as the Ibrahim Index of African Governance and the Economist Intelligence Unit’s Democracy Index, and past elections have generally been considered free and fair (Mo Ibrahim Foundation, 2017; Economist Intelligence Unit, 2017).
Migration is a high-profile issue in the Gambia, especially irregular low-skilled emigration beyond the borders of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) (Zanker & Altrogge, 2017). Yahya Jammeh’s 22-year autocratic regime, characterized by poverty and poor governance, triggered a wave of irregular emigration – especially by young Gambians – to Europe, a phenomenon known locally as “the back way” (Embiricos, 2016).
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Botswana is a semi-arid Southern African country characterized by erratic rainfall, recurrent droughts, low soil moisture, and extreme weather events such as flash floods (African Climate and Development Initiative, 2015) – a foundation of vulnerability for communities in the country. Frequent drought conditions have had significant impacts on domestic food production and other aspects of the national economy in the past (Seekings, 2016).
The Gambia ranks 130th out of 180 countries and territories in Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index (2017), an improvement from 145th in 2016. High-profile corruption convictions in the past have included those of a former permanent secretary of the Ministry of Agriculture, inspector general of the police, justice minister, and president of the Gambia Court of Appeal (U.S. Department of State, 2014).
For democracy to be “lived” by ordinary citizens, their ability to engage with others and the state must be protected. While civil freedoms and rights are thus considered core elements of democracies, their mere existence on paper does not mean that citizens will use or benefit from them.
Poverty and inequality, exacerbated by poor economic growth, continue to be challenges for the government of the Kingdom of eSwatini. The World Bank (2018) reports that economic growth in eSwatini declined to 1.9% in 2017, from 3.2% in 2016, reflecting a slow recovery in agriculture and mounting fiscal challenges. Six in 10 citizens (60.3%) live in poverty, including 38% in extreme poverty, which disproportionately affects children, the elderly, the unemployed, as well as female-headed and single-headed households (World Bank, 2018).
Le secteur agricole est l’un des principaux moteurs de l’économie camerounaise. En 2012, ce secteur a contribué à hauteur de 21,1% au produit intérieur brut (PIB). Employant 60% de la population active, il assure un rôle essentiel dans la création des revenus dans les campagnes de même qu’il garantit la sécurité alimentaire des populations (Institut National de la Statistique, 2016).
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A la suite de la suppression progressive des barrières entre les différents pays contribuant à une intégration plus poussée dans certaines zones, le monde est aujourd’hui considéré comme un « village planétaire ». Une des conséquences visibles de cette intégration est sans doute le phénomène des migrations internationales.
For decades, Cabo Verde has faced the challenges of modest economic growth, imbalanced development among its islands, and high unemployment, particularly among youth. To increase economic growth from a projected 4.1% for 2018 to about 7% in 2021, the government has put in motion two major proposals (Nshimyumuremyi, 2018; Monteiro, 2017).