Zimbabwe has not been spared the ravages of the COVID-19 pandemic. As of 16 June 2021, the country had recorded 40,077 confirmed cases and 1,635 deaths of COVID-19 (World Health Organization, 2021). Lockdowns have threatened many households with destitution and hunger (News24, 2021).
On 17 May 2021, former attorney general and prominent government critic Jayaram Valayden was detained by Mauritian security forces and charged with organizing a rally in contravention of the country’s Quarantine Act, a COVID-19 containment measure that prohibits public gatherings of more than 10 people (CNBC Africa, 2021).
Afin de limiter les pertes énormes de recettes à cause de la faiblesse de son système fiscal et douanier, le Togo a rendu opérationnelle depuis 2014 la politique dite « régie intégrée » avec l’avènement de l’Office Togolais des Recettes (OTR). Cette politique consiste à fusionner les services des impôts et des douanes en une seule entité dotée d’organes et d’un système de fonctionnement plus efficaces, et a pour objectif de collecter les recettes fiscales et douanières pour le compte de l’Etat et des collectivités locales (Djallo, 2015).
Public protests and civic actions have been an integral part of Liberia’s political history. In April 1979, an 18% increase in the price of rice led to violent protests against the government, resulting in the deaths of about 40 protesters (Dash, 1980).
In November 2019, Mauritians conducted their 11th general election since independence in 1968, handing the ruling Militant Socialist Movement a clear victory and Prime Minister Pravind Kumar Jugnauth a five-year term. In the Economist Intelligence Unit (2019) Democracy Index that followed in early 2020, Mauritius ranked as a “full democracy,” 18th worldwide and No. 1 in Africa.
Pour les défenseurs de la démocratie, la presse est l’institution non gouvernementale la plus indispensable et la plus redoutable (Girard, 2019). Selon eux l’accès à l’information est primordial pour permettre aux citoyens de s’informer sur l’actualité économique, politique et sociale afin de demander des comptes aux dirigeants élus.
Depuis le premier cas confirmé de COVID-19, en novembre 2019 en Chine, cette pandémie a remis devant la scène internationale l’importance de la confiance entre gouvernants et gouvernés dans un contexte particulier de besoin de stratégies de communications de crise sanitaire.
Identity is an important attribute of individuals and groups that influences how people see themselves and relate to others. Individuals and groups leverage many different identities as the situation demands: ethnic, linguistic, economic, national, religious, and sexual, among others.
Free and independent media is still a new phenomenon in Ethiopia. Although the downfall of the military regime in May 1991 triggered an unprecedented proliferation of print media, it didn’t last long. Draconian media laws promulgated by the Federal Parliament drove many of them out of business, and the media landscape in Ethiopia continues to be dominated by state and quasi-state operators.1
Within days after the Gambia registered its first coronavirus case on 17 March 2020, the government declared a state of public emergency. As the number of COVID-19 cases and deaths climbed, it closed the country’s airspace as well as sea and land borders, banned public gatherings, closed schools and universities, and instituted a night curfew to contain the spread of the virus (Darboe, 2020; Xinhua, 2020).
L’éducation est considérée comme l’un des secteurs qui fonde le développement d’un pays. Elle participe entre autres à la formation des populations et à la cohésion sociale d’une nation.
Kenya’s Constitution calls for a justice system that is accessible, affordable, and comprehensible to ordinary people and that dispenses justice fairly, speedily, and without discrimination, fear, or favour. The Constitution lays down principles to guide the administration of justice, including equality before the law, efficiency in the delivery of justice, mainstreaming of alternative justice systems, and the importance of substantive justice regardless of legal procedures and technicalities (Republic of Kenya, 2010).
Electricity is a major determinant of a country’s economic prosperity. Lack of access to electricity has an enormous impact on the use of emerging technologies, modern economic activities, public service delivery, and standards of living (Blimpo & Cosgrove, 2019).
Taxes are enforced exactions, not voluntary contributions to the state. Fines and penalties are designed to ensure compliance with tax laws. In spite of these enforcement mechanisms, the willingness of citizens to pay taxes plays an important role in tax administration.
De acordo com a Fundação Mo Ibrahim (2019), as tendências no que diz respeito à promoção da integração da juventude em Africa são preocupantes. Considerando que em 2019, por volta de 60% da população do continente era constituída por menores de 25 anos, a integração socioeconómica da juventude coloca-se como primordial para o futuro do continente.
African governments have won praise for their rapid action to limit the spread of COVID-19, which may have helped the continent avoid, so far, the massive death tolls experienced elsewhere. (Bearak & Paquette, 2020; Smith, 2020). Many also provided some assistance to help businesses and vulnerable families weather the pandemic (Zane, 2020).
Since its outbreak in December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a major negative effect on almost every country's economy, as well as the global economy as a whole.
Although Africa has so far been spared the massive COVID-19 death tolls experienced in some other regions, health officials are urgently advising African leaders to launch mass vaccination campaigns (France24, 2021). The World Health Organization (WHO, 2021a) reports that countries are indeed “revving up” to roll out vaccines in the face of recent surges in coronavirus infections, including faster-spreading new variants.
Zambia recorded its first COVID-19 case on 18 March 2020. A week later, President Edgar Lungu closed all schools and universities, restaurants (except on a take-away basis), nightclubs, cinemas, and gyms; limited public gatherings to less than 50 people; suspended international flights except to and from Lusaka; ordered quarantining of travelers entering the country; and ordered mandatory mask-wearing in public (SATUCC, 2020; United Nations, 2020; United Nations Development Programme, 2020).
La survenue de la COVID-19 en Chine en fin 2019 a eu des conséquences importantes au plan sanitaire comme socio-économique, en Sénégal comme au reste du monde.
Le Togo a confirmé son premier cas de COVID-19 le 6 mars 2020 et a recensé depuis lors 6,933 cas pour 85 personnes ayant perdu leur vie (Organisation Mondiale de la Santé, 2021).