Access to safe water and sanitation is a human right, a prerequisite for good public health and development – and a persistent challenge for most African governments (UN Water, 2021; Holtz, & Golubsk, 2021; Mason, Nalamalapu, & Corfee-Morlot, 2019). As the COVID-19 pandemic reminds us, if we needed a reminder, hygiene saves lives (United Nations, 2021).
L’impôt est considéré comme un instrument de redistribution des revenus et un moyen, pour les pouvoirs publics, d’obtenir les ressources nécessaires au financement de leur politique (Jurion, 2011).
La décentralisation en cours au Togo a pris racine dans la Constitution d’octobre 1992 et dans la loi N° 2019‐006 du 26 juin 2019 (République Togolaise, 2019). Mais ce processus visant la bonne gouvernance n’a repris qu’avec les élections locales de 2019.
More than 3 million Zimbabweans are fully vaccinated against COVID-19, out of 10 million the government aims to vaccinate in a bid to achieve herd immunity in a population of more than 15 million (World Health Organization, 2021; Dzinamira, Nachipo, Phiri, & Musuka, 2021).
En dépit des siècles d’exploitation systématique et de domination coloniale, le sentiment « anti-blanc » est relativement faible en Afrique (Boukari-Yabara, 2019). Même les mouvements panafricains demeurent antiracistes et peu revanchards envers les Européens. Le panafricanisme va plus dans le sens de la défense des noirs que de l’attaque des blancs.
Just 10 days after the country’s first COVID-19 case in March 2020, the Ugandan government ordered a nationwide lockdown (Kyeyune, 2020). A variety of restrictions have continued in place ever since as the country has recorded more than 128,000 infections and more than 3,260 deaths (Biryabarema, 2021; Ministry of Health, 2021; WHO, 2021).
As of early December 2021, Mozambique has recorded 152,120 COVID-19 infections and 1,941 COVID-19 deaths since the pandemic began (Africa Centers for Disease Control, 2021).
The government declared a state of emergency from March to September 2020 and mandated a temporary lockdown. Some restrictions on movement and gatherings continue under a state of public calamity (U.S. Embassy Mozambique, 2021).
In June 2021, protests against police brutality following the death of a law student quickly gained momentum and transformed into a much larger call for democratic reforms in Eswatini (Human Rights Watch, 2021). Protesters (mostly youth) across different constituencies marched to deliver petitions to their members of Parliament (MPs) calling for the unbanning of political parties and the right to democratically elect a prime minister, who is currently appointed by the king (Koogotsitse, 2021).
In June 2020, the body of 28-year-old Tshegofatso Pule, who was eight months pregnant, was found stabbed and hanging from a tree outside Johannesburg (News24, 2020).
The brutality of the murder shocked the nation. But the crime was one of many.
The damaging effects of corruption on countries, industries, and individuals are well documented, including its destructive drain on public trust and on the legitimacy of government institutions (Sullivan et al., 2012; Myint, 2000; Diamond, 2007).
The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) opened for business on January 1, 2021, promising opportunities for people from all socio-economic strata to share in economic growth in the world’s largest free-trade zone. Signed by 54 African countries and ratified by 28 (African Business, 2021), with a combined gross domestic product of about U.S. $2.2 trillion, the AfCFTA is projected to generate increased cross-border trade, investment volumes,
On 4 December 2021, Gambians will head to the polls in their first presidential election since the end of Yahya Jammeh’s 22-year dictatorship. Incumbent Adama Barrow, who shockingly defeated Jammeh in 2016 with the backing of seven opposition parties (BBC, 2016), is seeking re-election at the head of his new National People’s Party (Fatty, 2021; Muntagadura, 2021).
Morocco has recorded more than 947,760 COVID-19 cases since 2 March 2020, second on the continent to South Africa. Deaths number more than 14,720 (WHO, 2021; BBC, 2021).
Home to some of the world’s fastest-growing economies (Mitchell, 2019), Africa has attracted the attention of leaders and economic strategists everywhere, including China. Over the past two decades, political and economic relations between China and Africa have grown rapidly, with trade volumes increasing from about $11 billion in 2000 to $192 billion in 2019
Developing countries lose $1.26 trillion a year to corruption, theft, and tax evasion, according to analysts’ estimates – a sum large enough to lift 1.4 billion people above the poverty line for six years (Fleming, 2019). Unless we control corruption, development experts say, achieving the other Sustainable Development Goals will be all but impossible (United Nations, 2019; Rubio & Andvig, 2019).
Au Niger, l’Article 118 de la Constitution stipule que la justice est rendue au nom du peuple et dans le respect strict de la règle de droit ainsi que des droits et libertés de chaque citoyen. Dans l’exercice de leurs fonctions, les juges sont indépendants et ne sont soumis qu’à l’autorité de la loi.
Addressing the needs of youth – for education, engagement, and livelihoods – has become a central tenet of global and continental policy discussions over the past decade. The African Youth Charter underscores the rights of youth to participate in political and decision-making processes and calls upon states to prepare them with the necessary skills to do so
Zimbabwe’s economy has been in free-fall for more than two decades. Two major explanations stand in opposition to each other. The first school of thought attributes the country’s economic malaise to sanctions imposed by Western countries. The second blames government mismanagement and corruption.
In Mozambique’s northern province of Cabo Delgado, the insurgent group Ahlu-Sunnah Wa-Jama’a (ASWJ) has spearheaded debilitating attacks on the state and local populations. Since 2017, the group – known locally as al-Shabaab – has consolidated its presence, seized key infrastructure and transport routes, and killed at least 3,382 civilians (Rambourg & Njanji, 2021; Risk Bulletin, 2020; Faria, 2021; Cabo Ligado, 2021).
Despite its status as a middle-income country, Eswatini has suffered stagnating economic growth characterized by high unemployment, unequal distribution of wealth, and persistent poverty (World Bank, 2021). The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated these challenges as restrictions on business operations and border closures constrained export-oriented industries, weakened demand, and reduced incomes. The African Development Bank Group (2021) projects modest economic growth of 1.4% in 2021.
Dans le domaine de la paix et de la sécurité, le gouvernement du Sénégal s’est engagé à veiller sur l’intégrité du territoire et des personnes, des biens et des services ainsi que sur la cohésion sociale, et d’assurer la promotion de la citoyenneté et des comportements civiques (République du Sénégal, 2014). Cependant, depuis quelques années, les cas de violences tels que les agressions, vols à mains armées, viols, cambriolages et meurtres se multiplient, notamment à Dakar (VOA, 2019).
In Uganda, restrictions on Internet and social media use are becoming common. Since 1 July 2021, Internet users have begun paying a 12% tax on Internet data, in addition to an 18% valued added tax (Mwesigwa, 2021). The Internet tax replaces the over-the-top tax, popularly known as the “social media tax,” which the government imposed in 2018 in a bid to restrict access to Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, and other platforms.
Le Cameroun est un pays riche en cultures et en traditions. Du fait de son histoire de colonisation, le Français et l’Anglais sont les deux langues officielles, faisant ainsi une des particularités de ce pays en Afrique. La diversité culturelle est la raison pour laquelle le pays est dénommé « l’Afrique en miniature » (Serra, 2009).
In South Africa, the economic hub of Africa, years of stifled growth have been worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic’s extended restriction of economic activity. The economy shrank by 7% in 2020 (World Bank, 2020), causing widespread material deprivation, job losses, and anxiety about the future. Signs of recovery, though seen for four consecutive quarters, have been modest (Statistics South Africa, 2021a).
In his inaugural speech in November 2017, President Emmerson Mnangagwa pledged to fight corruption, a scourge that he said “remains the major source of some of the problems we face as a country, and its retarding impact on national development cannot be over- emphasized” (Sithole-Matarise, 2017).
Zimbabwe’s water and sanitation crisis predates COVID-19 by decades. But it appears to be worsening, and bringing additional dangers during the pandemic.
Access to clean water has long been declining, especially in urban areas. Human Rights Watch (2020) reports that while 84% of Zimbabweans had access to safe drinking water in 1988, that proportion had shrunk to 72% by 2000 and to 64% by 2017. More than 2 million people in the greater Harare metropolitan area have no household access to safe water for drinking.
In July 2021, as South Africa grappled with a third wave of COVID-19 infections, widespread looting and rioting erupted in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal, the two most populous provinces (Daily Maverick, 2021). The riots damaged businesses, public buildings, and key infrastructure and left at least 342 people dead, and order was restored only after the state deployed 25,000 army troops (Business Day, 2021; Davis, Nicolson, & Simelane, 2021).