Le 31 janvier 2017, le Royaume du Maroc a rejoint l'Union Africaine (AU) après une absence de 33 ans. Le pays avait quitté l'Organisation de l'Unité Africaine en 1984 après que la République Arabe Sahraouie Démocratique (RASD) – sur laquelle le Maroc affirme avoir autorité – a été reconnue comme un état membre et acceptée au sein de l'organe continental (Mohamed, 2017).
Le panafricanisme / l’intégration réegionale
Pour les partisans de l'intégration régionale en tant que vecteur de la puissance économique et politique de l'Afrique, les derniers résultats d'enquête d'Afrobaromètre suggèrent que beaucoup de citoyens ne sont toujours pas convaincus des avantages de l'intégration.
L'intégration régionale a été pour l'Afrique une stratégie de développement des décennies durant. Le traité de fondation de la Communauté Economique Africaine en 1991 a fourni un cadre visant une intégration politique et économique totale avant 2019. Beaucoup de pays africains se sont engagés pour stimuler la coopération politique et économique.
The East African Community was originally comprised of three countries: Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. These three states have a history of cooperation dating back to the early 20th century, including the Customs Union between Kenya and Uganda in 1917, which Tanzania (then Tanganyika) joined in 1927, the East Africa High Commission (1948-1961), the East African Common Services (1961-1967) and the East African Community (1967-1977). The East African Community collapsed in 1977 largely as a result of political differences among the member states.
The current East African Community (EAC) was formally launched in 2001 comprising of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. In 2007, the community expanded to include Rwanda and Burundi. Within this regional framework, the grouping has achieved two primary stages of integration: a Customs Union (2005) and Common Market (2010). Nevertheless, despite apparenteconomic progress, there are inter-state agreement and national implementation challenges which have negatively impacted upon further bargaining between the EAC partner states.
Les Nigériens dans leur majorité (73%) disent que les personnes vivant en Afrique de l’Ouest devraient pouvoir franchir librement les frontières internationales pour faire du commerce ou pour travailler dans d’autres pays, d’après la plus récente enquête d’Afrobaromètre.
Mais de nombreux citoyens trouvent qu’en pratique, la libre circulation pose des difficultés.
Political leaders in the five countries of the East African Community (EAC) – Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi – have made concerted efforts to promote the benefits of an East African Federation (EAF). The signing of regional integration treaties is covered extensively in national and regional media. Yet many citizens in the two largest member states are not convinced that integration will lead to promised benefits for their countries.
A majority of Kenyans see the involvement of the Kenya Defence Forces (KDF) in Somalia as having been necessary despite terrorist problems resulting from it, according to the latest Afrobarometer survey.
However, survey results indicate that Kenyans are divided over whether the KDF should withdraw from Somalia or not.
The survey results come at a time of intense public debate regarding KDF involvement in Somalia, with concerns that Kenya’s incursion into Somalia may have contributed to increased terror attacks on Kenyan soil.
Most Basotho, protective of their independence, are against intervention or assistance from neighbouring southern African countries to guarantee free elections and prevent human rights abuses in their country, according to the latest Afrobarometer survey.
Basotho are almost equally divided on whether the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the African Union (AU) are helpful to Lesotho or not, survey results show.
In addition, a majority of Basotho say their country should continue to be independent of South Africa, despite the two countries’ close ties.
Malawians wish the future development of their country to be modelled after that of South Africa, compared to alternative models of other countries like the USA, China and Britain according to the most recent Afrobarometer survey.
In related results, Malawians are divided on whether China’s economic development assistance does a good job in meeting development needs of the country. Economic, rather than political, factors matter most in shaping Malawians’ perception of China according to the survey—which was conducted in March and April 2014.
The East African Community (EAC) is an intergovernmental organisation comprising five countries in the Great Lakes region: Burundi, Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. The EAC has a protocol that identifies objectives for fostering regional peace and security.
When the treaty establishing the East African Community came into force on July 7, 2000, the three East African countries of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania officially set their goal as the creation of a federation of East African states. The founders of the East African Federation (EAF) expected it to be realized in four stages – a customs union , a common market , a monetary union , and eventually a political federation to be achieved in 2013. A committee on Fast Tracking East African Federation (the Wako Committee) was established to help speed up the process.