By Jeffrey Conroy-Krutz and Joseph Koné
Jeffrey Conroy-Krutz is associate professor of political science at Michigan State University and editor of the Afrobarometer Working Papers series. Find him on Twitter @jconroykrutz.
Joseph Koné is a research associate and finance officer at Centre de Recherche et de Formation sur le Développement Intégré (CREFDI), the Afrobarometer National Partner in Côte d’Ivoire. Find him on Twitter @infoCrefdi.
Originally published on the Monkey Cage blog.
In Nigeria, thousands have taken to the streets in recent weeks, calling for the abolition of the police’s Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) and other police reforms. On social media, #EndSARS has been a rallying cry for those protesting how the unit has extorted, harassed, illegally detained, tortured and even killed with impunity for decades. This social movement has demonstrated how disenfranchised groups, in this case youth and women, can harness the power of digital media to fight endemic problems like police corruption and brutality.
Earlier this year, Ethiopians took to social media after the murder of singer Hachalu Hundessa. While many shared expressions of sadness, others spread speculation and rumors. Some asserted that government agents killed Hachalu as retaliation for his activism on behalf of displaced ethnic Oromo. Others blamed the Egyptian government, reasoning that the country was trying to sow chaos as Ethiopia proceeded with plans to construct a controversial dam on the Nile. Riots followed, leaving upwards of 230 dead.
These examples highlight the promise and peril of social media in Africa. WhatsApp, Twitter, and Facebook are providing new platforms for social mobilization. But they are also making it easier to spread disinformation, rumors and hate speech, sometimes with deadly consequences.
New data from Afrobarometer show that the use of digital media (news from the Internet and social media) is growing fast across Africa. But access is uneven, and many Africans are well aware of the pitfalls of getting their information online.
Africa has a large “digital divide”
The past decade has seen significant growth in Africans’ use of digital media. Surveys by Afrobarometer, an independent African research network, offer a way to track this growth. On average across 16 countries surveyed in both 2014/2015 and 2019/2020, the proportion of people who said they used either the Internet or social media to get their news at least a few times a week nearly doubled over five years, from 22% to 38%.
But are groups benefiting equally from the spread of digital media? Survey responses show that some traditionally disadvantaged groups — such as rural residents, women and those with primary education or less — are seeing big gains in their regular use of digital media (see Figure 1).
But so are already-privileged groups. Between 2014/2015 and 2019/2020, urban residents logged bigger gains (+13 percentage points) in use than rural dwellers (+11). Men’s gains (+16) outpaced women’s (+14). And those with at least some secondary school saw bigger gains (+20) than those without (+10).
If already-privileged groups are more likely to have access to new technologies, those advances could make existing inequalities even worse. Africa’s digital divide is not shrinking. It might even be growing.
Figure 1: Gaps in digital media use | by urban/rural residence, gender, age, and education | 16 countries | 2014/2015 vs. 2019/2020
Respondents were asked: How often do you get your news from the Internet/social media?
(Figure shows gaps, in percentage points, between groups in 2014/2015 and 2019/2020 surveys, in the proportion of respondents who said they accessed Internet/social media news “every day” or “a few times a week.”)
The digital divide separates countries as well. Half or more of citizens in Botswana, Cabo Verde, Gabon and Tunisia now use digital media regularly for their news. But in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda, fewer than one in five do. To be sure, these numbers likely underrepresent the actual reach of messages conveyed on digital media; in many contexts, one user can share information with many others. But the lack of widespread access to Internet and social media news can give a relatively small number of people disproportionate power as information gatekeepers and opinion influencers.
Africans have mixed feelings about social media
For every #EndSARS example of social media use for positive change, it seems there’s a Hachalu riots tragedy. So do Africans view the overall social media ledger positively or negatively? Among the 66% of respondents who were aware of social media, people were more than twice as likely to say that the overall effects of social media are positive (54%) than negative (25%). Across nearly 27,000 respondents in 18 countries interviewed in 2019/2020, large numbers saw social media as informing people about politics (88%) and helping them have more political impact (73%) (see Figure 2).
However, they also saw social media’s apparent downsides. A majority said social media makes people less tolerant (64%) and more likely to believe “fake news” (75%).
Figure 2: Effects of social media | 18 countries | 2019/2020
Respondents were asked: Regardless of whether you personally use social media yourself, please tell me whether you agree or disagree that social media: (% who “agreed” or “strongly agreed”)
- Makes people more informed about current events?
- Makes people more likely to believe false news?
- Helps people have more impact on political processes?
- Makes people more intolerant of those who have different political opinions?
Overall, do you think that the effects of social media on society are mostly positive, mostly negative, or haven’t you heard enough to say?
When it comes to “fake news” shared via any media channel, most respondents held politicians and parties responsible; nearly two-thirds (65%) said political figures spread disinformation “sometimes” or “often.” Half blamed government officials (51%) and the media (50%). But even more blamed social media users (60%).
In fact, many Africans think the downsides are significant enough to warrant government action to limit certain kinds of speech (see Figure 3). Three-quarters (76%) supported government prohibitions on the sharing of information that is false, while smaller majorities approved of limitations on hate speech (70%) and on messaging that criticizes or insults the president (62%). Almost half (45%) endorsed restrictions on information or opinions that the government disapproves of.
Figure 3: Support for government restrictions on free speech | 18 countries | 2019/2020
Respondents were asked: Please tell me whether you agree or disagree that the government should be able to limit or prohibit sharing of:
- News or information that is false?
- News, information, or opinions that the government disapproves of?
- News, information, or opinions that criticize or insult the president?
- Hate speech, that is, news, information, or opinions designed to attack or vilify certain groups in society?
(% who “agreed” or “strongly agreed”)
Opportunities for the censors?
In practice, governments in Africa are clamping down on digital media with increasing frequency, citing everything from covid-19 rumors and election-time hate speech to Russian influence campaigns. Dozens of countries have blocked the Internet or social media at various points since 2015. A shutdown in Chad lasted for more than a year.
But while respondents in the Afrobarometer surveys seem to recognize the real dangers that digital media present, they are not willing to give their governments free rein. Nearly half (48%) agreed that unrestricted access to digital media should be protected, while only 36% said governments should regulate digital media. Broad shutdowns therefore seem decidedly unpopular, as do widely derided policies like Uganda’s “social media tax.”
Like others around the world, Africans seem torn about digital media and how to expand its benefits while limiting its dangers. This ambivalence gives governments potential openings to limit speech and press freedoms. And that could mean further challenges for international and domestic groups looking to promote media freedom and the use of digital media as pro-democratic spaces, as well as those concerned with expanding digital literacy and limiting the viral spread of harmful messages.