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AD344: Sierra Leoneans strong on democracy, but split on whether dual citizens should participate

After an unstable political history of autocratic rule, coups and counter-coups, and a destructive decade-long civil war, Sierra Leoneans want to live in a democracy with elections and multiparty competition, according to findings from the most recent Afrobarometer survey.

They are divided, however, on the question of whether people holding dual citizenship should be allowed to participate by voting, and a majority would deny them the right to stand for office.

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AD343: Climate change: Few Moroccans see it as making life worse, feel empowered to fight it

 
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AD342: Free vs. false: Namibia’s changing media landscape presents tough choices for citizens

 
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AD339: Religion en Afrique: Forte tolérance et confiance vis-à-vis des dirigeants, mais beaucoup admettraient le contrôle du discours religieux

 

Une écrasante majorité des Africains pratiq

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AD337: Batswana say traditional leaders strengthen democracy – but should stay out of politics

Botswana is the oldest multiparty democracy in sub-Saharan Africa, boasting 11 successful national elections since independence in 1966. The country’s Constitution provides for a parliamentary system with two chambers: Parliament, which makes laws, and the House of Chiefs (Ntlo ya Dikgosi), which serves in an advisory capacity on matters of tradition and customs. Except for a few sub-districts where chiefs are elected, chieftainship is a hereditary institution based on tribal lineage.

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AD336: Malgré la perception de libertés croissantes, les Tunisiens manifestent un engagement citoyen limité

La Tunisie est, depuis sa révolution en 2011, un modèle de transition démocratique réussie dans le monde arabe (Caryl, 2019). Alors que la Libye, le Yémen, et la Syrie ont sombré dans la guerre civile, et que l'Égypte et le Bahreïn sont tombés dans la répression et l'autoritarisme, la Tunisie est le seul pays du Printemps arabe où la démocratie a survécu (Chulov, 2018).

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AD335: Selon les Gabonais, le président, quoique responsable devant la loi et le Parlement, les ignore souvent

L'obligation de rendre compte constitue un pilier central de la gouvernance démocratique. Si la tenue d'élections libres et transparentes contribue à promouvoir le gouvernement du peuple, par le peuple, et pour le peuple, les événements qui se déroulent entre deux élections peuvent être tout aussi importants. Le respect de l'état de droit et des autres instances gouvernementales est aussi essentiel à la gestion quotidienne des affaires publiques qu'à la tenue d'élections de qualité.

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AD334: Prerequisite for progress: Accessible, reliable power still in short supply across Africa

Given its undisputed importance for almost any aspect of development – from health and educational achievement to economic growth and poverty reduction – access to electricity may have earned the status of a basic human right (Hughes, 2018). At a minimum, it is widely acknowledged as a prerequisite for progress on most of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), where it is highlighted as SDG7, “Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all” (United Nations Development Programme, 2019; Stern, 2016; Lloyd, 2017).

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AD333: Ghanaians perceive increase in corruption level, give government low marks on fighting graft

Fighting corruption was one of the main campaign planks of Ghana’s current government. During his inauguration speech in 2017, President Nana Akufo-Addo cited the war on graft as his top priority, pledging to protect the public purse and rejecting the idea that the public service is an avenue for making money (BBC, 2017; Forson, 2017).

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AD331: Despite recent banking shake-up, Ghanaians still see banks as their safest option

Ghana’s banking sector is the second-largest in the West African Monetary Zone (Frankfurt School, 2015) and recorded a 33.9% increase in total assets between June 2016 (GHS 66.29 billion) and June 2018 (GHS 100.35 billion) (Bank of Ghana, 20188. But during the past two years, the country’s financial industry has seen a massive shake-up, resulting in the revocation of licenses of nine universal banks, 347 microfinance companies, 39 microcredit companies/money lenders, 15 savings and loan companies, eight finance house companies, and two non-bank financial institutions (Ghanaweb, 2019a).

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AD329: Tanzania Revenue Authority earns good marks but still earning citizens’ trust

Tax revenues play an essential role in financing government expenditures, which can benefit citizens through effective public services, infrastructure, and development (Bird, 2010). This requires that citizens pay their taxes and that the government administer taxes effectively and efficiently – requirements that represent significant challenges in many countries (Saad, 2014).

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AD330: Party identification and trust are declining, but Namibians have not lost faith in voting

For the sixth time since independence, Namibians are going to the polls to choose a president and members of the National Assembly – in free and fair elections whose outcome has never varied.

Although Namibia uses a closed party-list system with “largest remainders” provisions that optimize parliamentary inclusion even for very small parties, the ruling SWAPO Party has managed to increase its share of votes and parliamentary seats consistently since the founding elections of 1989.

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AD325: Les Togolais ne sont pas satisfaits de la performance du gouvernement en éducation

« Assurer l’accès de tous à une éducation de qualité, sur un pied d’égalité » fait partie du quatrième Objectif de Développement Durable et demeure l’un des besoins fondamentaux de la jeunesse. Pour promouvoir une meilleure éducation, le Togo pour sa part, a élaboré des stratégies gouvernementales définies dans le Plan Sectoriel de l’Education (2014-2025) (Partenariat Mondiale pour l’Education, 2019).

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AD324: Despite progressive laws, barriers to full gender equality persist in South Africa

Since May, for the first time in its history, half of South Africa’s Cabinet ministers are women (World Economic Forum, 2019). And assessing women’s economic participation, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment, the Global Gender Gap Index ranks South Africa 19th out of 149 countries (World Economic Forum, 2018).

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AD323: In eSwatini, citizens doubt benefits of legalizing marijuana, but few would report violations

In search of economic growth, employment, and tax revenue, some governments have looked to one of the world’s oldest and most lucrative – but often illegal – cash crops: cannabis (Gardner, 2019; Meyer, 2019). Known to most people for its recreational use as marijuana, cannabis also has non-intoxicating forms (known as hemp) that are fast-growing and water-wise and can be used to make fabrics, ropes, papers, and oils, among other uses.

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AD322: Gambians with clear message to government: Focus on service delivery

Efficient and effective public service delivery is a necessity for citizens’ well-being (Armah- Attoh, 2015). However, in Africa, access to quality public services remains a challenge. According to the Mo Ibrahim Foundation )2018), “the average African public service displays a lack of capacity, … with higher costs than in other regions and large country disparities.” In the Gambia, prominent human-rights activist Madi Jobarteh (2017) has criticized public service delivery as “incredibly inefficient.”

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AD320: Les services de base et les infrastructures du Niger ne sont pas encore suffisants

« Malgré les améliorations, force est de reconnaître que des insuffisances majeures persistent relativement à: (i) la qualité des routes, (ii) la faible couverture du pays en route et (iii) la surcharge sur les routes ». Cet extrait du Plan de Développement Economique et Social 2017-2021 du gouvernement du Niger en dit long sur les défis à relever (République du Niger, 2017).

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AD319: Apesar das liberdades, os Cabo-Verdianos estão insatisfeitos com a democracia na pioria do desempenho econômico

O Cabo Verde destaca-se no continente Africano como um paradigma de tolerância e respeito pelos direitos humanos e liberdades fundamentais. O país ratificou todas as principais convenções internacionais de direitos humanos; suas leis garantem liberdades democráticas; e seu governo é geralmente considerado eficaz no respeito e proteção desses direitos (Comissão Europeia, 2018; Departamento de Estados dos EUA, 2016).

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AD319: Despite freedoms, Cabo Verdeans dissatisfied with democracy as economic performance worsens

Cabo Verde stands out on the African continent as a paradigm of tolerance and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. The country has ratified all major international human-rights conventions; its laws guarantee democratic freedoms; and its government is generally considered effective in respecting and protecting these rights (European Commission, 2018; U.S. Department of State, 2016).

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AD318: Batswana report improving gender equality and approve of government efforts

The political, economic, and social inequality of women in Africa has been part of international discourse since the 1950s, when the United Nations began interrogating the effects of harmful traditional norms and practices on women across the continent. Human-rights groups have worked with and challenged African governments to promote women’s access to education, health care, economic opportunities, and participation in governance and politics (Murungu, 2017). While progress has been made, persistent gaps are the focus of Sustainable Development Goal No.

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AD317: Gambians trust the armed forces but are split over the presence of ECOMIG

In August 2017, as part of a broader reform agenda, Gambian President Adama Barrow launched a security sector reform (SSR) process to overhaul the country’s security institutions in line with democratic norms and practices. The reform initiative is premised on the notion that the Gambia’s security institutions, particularly the military, were politicized and “polluted” under former President Yahya Jammeh (Jaw, 2018; Jawo, 2018).

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AD316: Os São-Tomenses apoiam os impostos mas não confiam nos oficiais tributários

governamentais, muitos países em desenvolvimento enfrentam obstáculos na implementação de sistemas fiscais eficazes e eficientes (Tanzi & Zee, 2000). Impostos diretos, como o imposto de renda pessoal, são particularmente difíceis de administrar, pois exigem processos e estruturas complexas para identificar os contribuintes e facilitar e reforçar a conformidade (Kangave, 2005). Dadas estas dificuldades, muitos países em desenvolvimento dependem fortemente de impostos sobre o consumo que não podem ser evitados mesmo por aqueles no setor informal.

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AD316: São Toméans support taxes but don’t trust tax officials

While tax revenues are a critical part of financing government services, many developing countries face obstacles in implementing effective and efficient tax systems (Tanzi & Zee, 2000). Direct taxes, such as personal income taxes, are particularly difficult to administer as they require complex processes and structures to identify taxpayers and facilitate and enforce compliance (Kangave, 2005). Given these difficulties, many developing countries rely heavily on consumption taxes that cannot be evaded even by those in the informal sector.

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AD314: La violence politique a encore le vent en poupe en Guinée

La violence est l’utilisation de la force physique ou psychologique pour contraindre, dominer, causer des dommages ou la mort. Elle peut provenir d’une incompréhension, de l’ivresse ou de la drogue, d’une agression à domicile ou dans la rue, d’un extrémisme politique ou religieux – les circonstances et les ca uses de la violence sont légion.

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AD313: Les milieux d’affaires et politique vus comme le siège d’une corruption croissante au Niger

Le phénomène de la corruption est assez ancré au Niger, à en croire Transparency International (2018), qui classe le pays 114ème sur 180 pays. Face à ce fléau, la Haute Autorité de Lutte Contre la Corruption et les Infractions Assimilées (HALCIA) a été mise sur pied en 2011. Mais malgré ce mécanisme, la corruption gangrène encore le pays, avec 62% des Nigériens qui pensent qu’elle a augmenté, selon la plus récente enquête Afrobaromètre effectuée dans le pays.

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